In This Article
In This Article
Yes, it’s possible to get DNA from ashes.
DNA testing can still be done on the bodies of your departed loved ones.
The cremation process won't destroy all the DNA in someone's body--but only up to a certain point.
Cremation is the process of turning a person's remains into ashes. It involves extreme heat and typically takes around two hours.
The corpse is put in a cremation chamber at a temperature of around 1,000 °C.
Cremation destroys all the organs, tissues, and fat entirely. However, it's possible that certain hard tissues can survive this process.
Fire can damage DNA beyond recognition. But when some hard tissues are left over, like bones and teeth, you can use them for DNA analysis.1
How much DNA you can identify with cremated remains varies for each situation.
While most tissues in the body are destroyed during cremation, some hard tissues in bone and teeth can potentially survive the process and be used for DNA analysis.
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Your bones and teeth are made primarily of calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. These minerals make them a little stronger, more durable than other body parts, and more likely to survive high temperatures.
Cremation burns the rest of the body into ashes. All that is left are bones and teeth, which are also reduced into fragments. They often hold the DNA viable for testing.
DNA testing on burnt remains is possible if there are bone fragments left. Experts can extract DNA from these fragments and conduct tests on them.
However, in some cremation cases, the bones left behind turn into a fine powder. This process is known as pulverization.2 Pulverization makes DNA extraction a challenge.
It lowers the chances of securing a DNA sample. Without bone fragments, a successful DNA test may be impossible.
Because of the calcium in your bones and teeth, they're a little more likely to survive cremation. The leftover fragments can be tested if they weren't pulverized in the process.
DNA can also be extracted from the teeth of human remains. Their structure and location enable them to protect genetic material.
Even if the rest of the DNA has been destroyed by cremation, teeth or tooth fragments can give insight into a person’s identity and genetic makeup.
Studies show that dental tissues like enamel are an excellent source of DNA. They are resistant to degradation. Plus, tooth enamel has a high mineral content, which makes it strong.3
Most of the time, teeth are the last of a person’s remains to decompose. It makes DNA available long after the person has died.
Teeth are often the last of a corpse's remains to decompose or even burn completely, which makes extracting DNA from teeth fragments possible. If the teeth fragments survive cremation or decomposition, they're a great gateway into DNA analysis.
DNA testing is usually performed on a person’s remains to determine their identity. This is especially true for victims of extreme fire and cases of missing persons.
People also test ashes to confirm their family’s remains. Problems with funeral homes and crematoriums are rare, but mix-ups can occur.
If you want to make sure you have your loved one’s remains, you can use their bones and teeth fragments for DNA testing.
DNA testing is done on remains to identify bodies, victims, or even missing persons. It's also done as a confirmatory measure for any family members' remains, just in case of mix-ups.
It depends on the state of the body's decomposition and if tissues or bone fragments have been left behind and are eligible for testing.
DNA doesn't last forever. As the body decomposes, less and less genetic material is available for testing.
Exposure to the elements speeds up the decay of DNA. For example, a body that has been in water, sunlight, or heat will provide less DNA information than a better-preserved body.
An unpreserved body may lose all DNA traces in as little as a few weeks.
Scientists believe DNA can remain in a well-preserved body for up to a million years.
The oldest DNA sample on record came from an organism in Greenland. It was preserved beneath a mile of ice. It’s likely between 450,000 and 800,000 years old.4
The oldest human DNA ever sequenced to this day came from a 430,000-year-old sample.5 How long DNA lasts is based on many different factors, many of which are uncontrollable.
You can potentially collect DNA from a body as long as it's well-preserved. Otherwise, your timeline for DNA collection depends on how quickly a body decomposes or if all of the tissue and tooth and bone fragments were completely burned during the cremation process.
Yes. Embalming can destroy DNA. However, some DNA may remain in a person’s body.
Embalming is the process of preserving a body after it dies. It temporarily delays the decay and breakdown of cells in a dead body.
In most cases, the delay is just a few days or weeks. It gives the family time to mourn, transport their departed loved one to a different location, or set up a funeral.
An embalming fluid that contains bleach will degrade the DNA of the tissues it penetrates. It interferes with blood group antigens, which help determine a person’s genetic makeup.6
That said, DNA can still be recovered from places the embalming liquid doesn’t reach. These include your teeth and bone marrow.
Embalming fluid can destroy DNA because of its bleach content, which degrades tissues faster. However, anything the fluid doesn't touch may still be used for DNA testing.
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